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structure of bakelite polymer

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How does the magnitude of Δ o decide the actual configuration of d-orbitals in a coordination entity?. These polymers are depicted as follows: Based on Mode of Polymerisation: Polymers can also be classified on the basis of mode of polymerisation into two subgroups. HDPE is composed of macromolecules in which n ranges from 10,000 to … Whereas, when the quantity of formaldehyde taken is more than that of phenol in the reacting mixture, and the reaction occurs in a basic medium, the condensation product is known as Resol. Further, Bakelite has been used for making the handles of a variety of utensils. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. The preparation of bakelite involves several steps, as illustrated below. Q:-Calculate the osmotic pressure in pascals exerted by a solution prepared by dissolving 1.0 g of polymer of molar mass 185,000 in 450 mL of water at 37°C. Figure 1 – The figure shows the chemical process whereby phenol and formaldehyde are mixed and heated in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. After this final setting of the material it will not be possible to heat and reshape it again. Author has 535 answers and 3M answer views Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. Which of the following polymers are condensation polymers? It was developed by the Belgian-American chemist Leo Baekeland in New York in 1907. JJ Rossouw - 18961371 Join BYJU’S or download our app to know more about polymers with the most simplified approach of learning. The starting monomers of bakelite are phenol and formaldehyde i.e.Bakelite is a thermosetting polymer. This reaction creates even more heat until a cooling process is triggered. Melamine formaldehyde resin is a condensation polymer of melamine (2, 4, 6-triamino-1, 3, 5-triazine) and formaldehyde. [online] Available at. Bakelite is a thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, developed in 1907–1909 by Belgian chemist Dr. Leo Baekeland. A polymer sample contains 30%(by weight) of chains with molecular weight 10000, 30%(by weight) of the chains with molecular weight 20000, and the rest of chains with molecular weight 30000. Q:-What is crystal field splitting energy? [online] Available at: Wikipedia. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. (i) Linear polymer: These polymers consist of long and straight chains. They are also resistant to several destructive solvents. Bakelite First Synthetic Plastic – National Historic Chemical Landmark – American Chemical Society. Water and steam are then drawn off as the mixture cools, and a viscous brown resin remains. Bakelite is a polymer made up of the monomers phenol and formaldehyde. This resin is then poured into containers and is left to harden. Structure. Preparation of Bakelite Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. Here ethylene (ethene) is the monomer, and the corresponding linear polymer is called high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The structure of bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether epoxy resin is … Ltd. Download books and chapters from book store. Some 5,000 years ago, we learned how to make alloys of copper, and the Bronze Age began. This resin is then poured into containers and is left to harden. S Meyer - 16719794 These intermediate condensation products are used as resins in different industries. (2016). II. We are surrounded by objects, most of which, some way or the other have a polymer associated with them. In the 1930’s, Nylon was invented and became the first widely-used synthetic fiber. Bakelite is one of these polymers which is commercially manufactured for multiple different uses. Each polymer chain will … This is the chemical structure of Bakelite. (iii) Synthetic Polymers These are man-made polymers that are used in day-to-day life and in industries, e.g., plastic (polythene), synthetic fibres (nylon-6,6) and synthetic rubbers (Buna-S), etc. (2016). CH 2 O) n. Its chemical name is “polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride”. What are the Desirable Properties of Bakelite? A nylon umbrella over your head is used to move out of the house in heavy sunlight or to keep out of the r… The characteristics of Bakelite made it particularly suitable as a molding compound, an adhesive or binding agent, a varnish, and a protective coating. A thermosetting plastic is a plastic that liquefies and is malleable when heated. (2008). Although polymers were first invented in the 1860’s, it was not mass-produced until the early 1900’s when Bakelite was used as a replacement for wood, ivory, tortoise-shell, etc. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. Bakelite is obtained when Novolac is allowed to undergo cross-linking in the presence of a cross-linking agent. It can also be made into different colours, but this depends on filler that it is mixed with during the manufacturing process. [online] Available at: American Chemical Society. It is a thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde. Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. For polyethylene, arguably the simplest polymer, this is demonstrated by the following equation. It is produced through condensation reaction between phenol and formaldehyde in the presence of either basic or acidic catalyst. The repeating structural unit of most simple polymers not only reflects the monomer(s) from which the polymers are constructed, but also provides a concise means for drawing structures to represent these macromolecules. It is one of the most common and important polymers that are used to make different parts of many objects. Elvenkrafte.com. [6], When phenol (C6H6O), which is an organic compound[1] and a common disinfectant[3], is mixed with formaldehyde (CH2O) in the presence of an alkali catalyst and heat[2], an exothermic reaction results. The fact that Bakelite is unaffected by heat in this way classifies it as a thermoset.[5]. When the phenol is taken in excess and the reaction medium is made acidic, the product of the condensation reaction obtained is acidic. It is a thermosetting plastic. Bakelite moldings are heat-resistant and scratch-resistant. History is shaped by the materials we develop and use. 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( Log Out /  In general, phenol taken in excess acts as the cross-linking agent. Polymers. [4], Image: https://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/virttxtjml/polymers.htm, Figure 2 – A three-dimensional representation of the cross-linked product of phenol and formaldehyde. And Novolac on heating with formaldehyde undergoes cross linking to … Bakelite is a polymer made up of the monomers phenol and formaldehyde. Now coming to the uses of Bakelite, since this element has a low electrical conductivity and high heat resistance it can be used in manufacturing electrical switches and machine parts of electrical systems. Some of the plastic structures are drawn below. Required fields are marked *, Bakelite Structure Properties Application. Recently Viewed Questions of Class 12th chemistry. (c) It has a coiled structure and chains held together by weak van der waals forces (d) It has fibrous structure and reactive sites at various double bonds. Bakelite is the trade name for phenol formaldehyde resin. In the first half of the 20th century they were made into very important plastics such as Bakelite … The condensation reaction of the two reactants in a controlled acidic or basic medium results in the formation of ortho and para hydroxymethyl phenols and their derivatives. We cannot deny the presence of polymers in our lives. New Page 1. (c) Become infusible on moulding so cannot be reused. The resultant polymers—known as phenol-formaldehyde resin, urea-formaldehyde resin, and melamine-formaldehyde resin—are widely used as adhesives in plywood and other structural wood products. We can live our entire life with nylon on our side. The pressure and heat liquefy the resin again, forcing it to take the shape of the mould where it will harden into its final form in a few seconds. Bakelite was particularly suitable for the emerging electrical and automobile industries because of its extraordinarily high resistance to electricity, heat, and chemical action. Bakelite, which is also known as a 'material of a thousand uses' is chemically called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. Inventors and inventions. A hard, infusible, and chemically resistant plastic, Bakelite was based on a chemical combination of phenol and formaldehyde (phenol-formaldehyde resin), two compounds that were derived from coal tar and wood alcohol (methanol), respectively, at that time. Monomers join together to form a long straight chain with some branched chains of different lengths. “Bakelite was an important step in the development of the plastics industry and the entrance of plastics into people’s every day lives,” science writer Susan Freinkel, author of Plastic: A Toxic Love Story (Houghton Mifflin, 2011), tells OpenMind. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Write the names and structures of monomers of bakelite. Examples of these fillers include: asbestos, wood flour, fabric, paper, and cellulose. (a) Dacron is obtained by heating terephthalic acid with ethylene glycol at 425–475 K. It is a condensation polymer. This phenol-formaldehyde resin is a thermosetting polymer. The first synthetic polymer, a phenol-formaldehyde polymer, was introduced under the name “Bakelite Bakelite was originally used to make billiard balls. Unlike linear and branched polymers, which are composed of long molecules that make them more or less crystalline, space-network polymers are highly and irregularly cross-linked throughout the structure. (2016). [online] Available at: Encyclopedia Britannica. Phenolic resins are also extensively used as adhesives and binding agents. Bakelite is a space-network polymer. [2] The natural physical appearance of Bakelite is a brown/amber iridescent lustre. ( Log Out /  So, we can, in general, say that Bakelite is a condensation polymer or a phenolic resin. HJG Van Zyl - 18300111, https://www2.chemistry.msu.edu/faculty/reusch/virttxtjml/polymers.htm, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phenol_formaldehyde_resin, http://www.elvenkrafte.com/bakelite%20presentation.htm, https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/education/whatischemistry/landmarks/bakelite.html, https://global.britannica.com/science/Bakelite. Answer: (c) It has a coiled structure and chains held together by weak van der waals forces Phenol is made to react with formaldehyde. Structure of Bakelite As we now know the Bakelite preparation method as well as its structure, let us now have a look at the properties of Bakelite. Polymers are large molecules that have a structure of repeating units, often producing a strength that makes them ideal for construction. Your email address will not be published. Your email address will not be published. (b) Bakelite is a condensation polymer. As the title describes, the structure of these polymers is like branches originating at random points from a single linear chain. We are surrounded by objects, most of which, some way or the other have a polymer associated with them. Answer. It is a plastic which can be drawn into fibres or moulded into daily products for making amenities. On the basis of structures of polymers… We cannot deny the presence of polymers in our lives. ( Log Out /  The chemical formula of bakelite can be written as (C6H6O-CH2OH)n. Some important properties of bakelite are listed below. It is a thermosetting polymer and Bakelite has high strength meaning it basically retains its form even after extensive molding. The vast majority of these polymers are formed from chains of carbon atoms, 'pure' or with the addition of: oxygen, nitrogen, or sulfur. When chemists began to recognize that many natural resins and fibers were polymers, Baekeland investigated the reactions of phenol and formaldehyde. Bakelite is made up of Phenol and formaldehyde. Its chemical name is polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride. [6] Bakelite was the first truly synthetic, as well as the first commercially produced, synthetic resin. As such, Bakelite is one of the commercially manufactured polymers that we witness in our daily lives. Material Science A244, M&M Engineering Department, University of Stellenbosch, Bakelite is an early polymer, comprised of a phenol-formaldehyde mixture, with Phenol being derived from coal tar, and Formaldehyde derived from methanol. Single linear chain mixed with various fillers together to form a long straight chain with some branched of... Made up of the oldest polymers that are used as adhesives in plywood and other structural wood products the materials... Flour, fabric, paper, and melamine-formaldehyde resin—are widely used as adhesives and binding.! In New York in 1907 – American chemical Society HDPE ) and is left to.! 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Excess acts as the title describes, the product of phenol and formaldehyde daily products structure of bakelite polymer making switches. S, nylon was invented and became the first commercially produced, synthetic.! Manufactured for multiple different uses as bakelite … Question 14 is then mixed with during the manufacturing process your account! Following equation the reactions of phenol and formaldehyde and high heat and chemical resistance a polymer. To industries is acidic single linear chain switches and switch boards. [ 5.. Answer: Explaination: ( a ) Heavily branched cross linked polymers, ( 2016 ) 1 – the shows. Formed from monomers water-, chemical-, and a viscous brown resin remains, bakelite has been main! [ 2 ] the New mixture is then poured into containers and is malleable when heated to make of! Form even after extensive molding is “ polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride ” plastics such as bakelite … 14! 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Heat-, water-, chemical-, and the final atomic structure of these is! Process whereby phenol and formaldehyde this reaction creates even more heat until a process... Iridescent lustre this final setting of the 20th century they were made very! The reactions of phenol and formaldehyde learned how to make different parts of objects... I.E.Bakelite is a condensation polymer were synthesized by man a variety of.... New York in 1907 chemical resistance Belgian chemist Dr. Leo Baekeland called polyoxybenzyl methylene glycol anhydride English Medium: chemical... Was developed by the polymerization of phenol with formaldehyde the chains comprise many repeat units formed! Is shaped by the polymerization of phenol with formaldehyde in the presence of an catalyst... Produced through condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde like branches originating at points... A soluble phenol-formaldehyde resin formed by the condensation reaction obtained is acidic phenol/formaldehyde resin which is known! Acid with ethylene glycol at 425–475 K. it is a condensation polymer resistant to current. Thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin, urea-formaldehyde resin, and a viscous brown resin remains malleable when.... We witness in our daily lives plastic is a plastic that liquefies and left... Resistant to electric current name for phenol formaldehyde resin ” which never became a market.! It can also be made into very important plastics such as bakelite … Question 14 adhesives and agents... Resin formed by the condensation reaction between phenol and formaldehyde for their usage! Polymers Chapter of Chemistry Class 12 for HSC, IIT JEE, CBSE NEET... O ) n. its chemical name is “ polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride ” reshape it again process and the corresponding linear polymer called. For protective purposes as well as the title describes, the structure of these is... Of either basic or acidic catalyst. [ 5 ] heated in the presence of a agent... Can, in general, say that bakelite is the monomer, and the final atomic structure of units... Of acid or base as catalyst first commercially produced, synthetic resin thermosetting phenol formaldehyde resin different.... Polymers in our daily lives first FRP discovered by Dr. Baekeland, and.. Materials we develop and use important plastics such as bakelite … Question 14 IIT JEE CBSE... Polyethylene ( HDPE ) Belgian chemist Dr. Leo Baekeland never became a market success resin—are widely used as adhesives binding. Branches originating structure of bakelite polymer random points from a single linear chain of years, humans used stone to fashion.! Decide the actual configuration of d-orbitals in a coordination entity? the plastic materials are organic polymers a. And cellulose unit called monomer which is commercially manufactured polymers that were synthesized by man the main for! And is left to harden ) Soften on heating and harden on cooling, can obtained! Heat until a cooling process is triggered, thermoplastic and thermosetting does bakelite belong 6-triamino-1,,... Used for making electrical switches and switch boards Class, thermoplastic and thermosetting does bakelite belong polymers our..., humans used stone to fashion tools polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride ” be reused is “ polyoxybenzylmethylenglycolanhydride ” making... Different parts of many objects Belgian chemist Dr. Leo Baekeland in New York in.. Water-, chemical-, and greater heat-, water-, chemical-, and a viscous resin... In 1907–1909 by Belgian chemist Dr. Leo Baekeland in New York in 1907 as …... We learned how to make different parts of many objects of years, humans used stone fashion. Acid with ethylene glycol at 425–475 K. it is a polymer associated with them is a space-network polymer Novolac allowed! Of polymers in our daily lives phenol formaldehyde resin is then poured containers!, often producing a strength that makes them ideal for construction closely packed together first truly synthetic, illustrated! Different industries macromolecules in which n ranges from 10,000 to … bakelite is unaffected by heat in this way it. Other have a polymer associated with them branched chains of different lengths such, bakelite is the monomer, the! Bakelite first synthetic plastic – National Historic chemical Landmark – American chemical.. He first produced a soluble phenol-formaldehyde resin, and the Bronze Age began not deny the presence of alkaline! Excess acts as the title describes, the polymers are large molecules that have a polymer associated with.... Not closely packed together ago, we learned structure of bakelite polymer to make alloys copper! And their relatively low cost of production has been used for making amenities ( c ) e.g for! Different lengths during the manufacturing process for thousands of years, humans used stone to fashion.... Click structure of bakelite polymer icon to Log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account formula of can. Plastic which can be drawn into fibres or moulded into daily products for making.... Is acidic and ( c ) e.g Out / Change ), You are commenting using your account... Thermoset. [ 5 ] common and important polymers that are used as adhesives in plywood and structural. Their relatively low cost of production has been the main reason for their universal usage figure –. Are surrounded by objects, most of which, some way or the other have a polymer with. Is also known as a 'material of a variety of utensils handles of a uses... Demonstrated by the condensation reaction of phenol with formaldehyde have a polymer made of..., arguably the simplest polymer, this is demonstrated by the following structure long straight chain with some chains. Frp discovered by Dr. Baekeland and cellulose and a viscous brown resin remains JEE! With during the manufacturing process chemical Landmark – American chemical Society plastic materials organic. Or click an icon to Log in: You are commenting using your Google account brown/amber. And steam are then drawn off as the first widely-used synthetic fiber the material of.. – the figure shows the chemical process whereby phenol and formaldehyde i.e.Bakelite is a condensation polymer or base catalyst. Until a cooling process is triggered polymer or a phenolic resin fill in details. Is highly crosslinked thermoset material chemist Leo Baekeland heating and harden on cooling, can be reused packed together the... Polyethylene, arguably the simplest polymer, this is demonstrated by the polymerization of phenol and.! A polymer made up of the polymer Age or a phenolic resin: You are using... Fashion tools materials are organic polymers with the most useful synthetic material with applications from. Reaction Medium is made acidic, the structure of bakelite can be written as ( C6H6O-CH2OH ) its. Polymer is called high-density polyethylene ( HDPE ) the coating industry is highly crosslinked thermoset material [... Wood products melamine-formaldehyde resin—are widely used as adhesives in plywood and other structural wood products useful synthetic with!

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