single mothers, poverty and depression
Education level among the single mothers was relatively low, with a smaller number of college graduates present among this demographic than among the married mothers. CONCLUSIONS: Single mothers reported more childhood abuse and experienced higher levels of poverty and psychiatric disorders than married mothers. One, the sample size of single mothers with depression was small and generalizing the results requires caution. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Poverty Poverty rates for single-mother families have remained unacceptably high over the past two decades. Despite these limitations, the current study’s contribution lies in having analyzed the risk factors of depression (the most common psychological difficulty among single mothers) through a comparison involving a control group consisting of married mothers of two-parent households. 1994 Spring;19(1):157-73. Mental health care can break the cycle of intergenerational transmission of poverty, stress, depression, and homelessness. 2018;39(2):233-242. doi: 10.1007/s10834-017-9551-6. The 2015 Single Parent Household Survey found that single parents have significantly poor physical and mental health, and that a great many of them suffer from depression. The limitations of the current study include the following. Shah SN, Fossa A, Steiner AS, Kane J, Levy JI, Adamkiewicz G, Bennett-Fripp WM, Reid M. J Urban Health. The present study examined single mothers in an attempt to identify the sociodemographic characteristics and psychological factors that contribute to depression among this population. Data curation, The prevalence of depression differed notably between the single mothers and the control group, at 33% and 8%, respectively. As there are limits to the actions an individual can take to overcome the economic and parenting hardships associated with single parenthood, practical social resources and policies are necessary to support these parents. re: Single Moms, Living in Poverty in Ohio. Among low-income mothers with infants, 11% experience severe depression and 41% have some form of depression. Single parents were at a much raised risk of experiencing these events. The present study’s findings also suggest that practical economic assistance is urgently needed to prevent and manage depression in single mothers, and that a variety of services and programs designed to provide parenting and emotional support are necessary. The survey also found that, at 43.7%, the majority of single-parent households consisted of a mother and child . A total of 497 single-parent households were selected by stratified random sampling. These results suggest that assistance with basic needs such as stable housing and provision of childcare-related support must be prioritized when designing relevant policies. A univariate logistic regression performed to analyze depression risk factors found the following. Copyright: © 2018 Kim et al. Soc Sci Med. This monthly rent is not returned later. Although not a clinical diagnostic tool for depression, the CES-D effectively reflects the severity of depressive symptoms in community studies, and the tool’s reliability and validity have been proven by Cho and Kim . Some, according to single parent statistics, have fallen into abject poverty and are struggling to feed their families. Approximately 30% of single mothers reported symptoms of depression or anxiety compared with just 14% of partnered mothers (P <.0001). Over half of the single mothers analyzed in the present study had a lower average monthly household income (less than two million KRW) than the married mothers in the control group, and the depressed single mothers had a lower average monthly income than their non-depressed counterparts. However, for the single and married mothers alike, no significant occupational differences were found between the depressed and the non-depressed. The 2015 Single Parent Household Survey found that 20.2% of single parents experience depressive symptoms, with 54% coping with the symptoms on their own and a mere 5.7% seeking professional help . Methodology, After excluding men and unmarried women, the data of 357 married women were used. Thirty surveyors, who had received training in means of conducting home surveys, visited the households of the individual residents. The nineteen dongs were classified into these three district strata and stratified by age and residence type. This suggests that single mothers generally have a significantly higher depressive symptom score. Furthermore, when the CES-D cut-off score of 25 points was applied, 33% of the single mothers and 8% of the married mothers were found to be depressed, indicating that the prevalence of depression among the single mothers was four times that of the married mothers. The mean CES-D score for the single mothers was significantly higher than that for the married mothers in the control group (20.9 vs. 12.5, p < 0.001), and the mean GARS score for the single mothers was significantly higher than that for the married mothers in the control group (33.1 vs. 19.7, p < 0.001). Moreover, 48.2% of single mothers who manage to find employment have been found to spend 10 hours or more at work every day and to receive insufficient holidays, which leaves a rather large void in childcare during which their children are alone without adult supervision. Sante Ment Que. 2. Public rental housing is a system in which national or private construction companies lease to low-income residents. 2007 Jan;42(1):6-13. doi: 10.1007/s00127-006-0125-4. The number of single-parent households in Korea has been rising in recent years, from 1,594,000 households in 2010 to 1,783,000 households in 2015. Single mothers were twice as likely as their married counterparts to be in financial hardship, despite being twice as likely to be in full-time employment. The mean CES-D (depression scale) score for the single mothers was 20.9 points, which approximated to the cut-off score of 21 points that is typically used in epidemiologic research to determine a significant level of depression; meanwhile, the mean score among the married mothers was 12.5 points. ... by the Growing up in Poverty Project (Fuller and . Furthermore, because the subjects consisted of single parents sampled from a single city, generalizing the findings across all single mothers requires caution, and the influence of the city’s geographic characteristics cannot be disregarded. Yes broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. Therefore, a variety of easily accessible mental health support services must be provided to promote the mental well-being of these parents. low self- Furthermore, as the single parent family structure forces such parents to seek employment outside the home, single mothers are more likely to experience increased economic hardship and parenting stress , which also leads to an increased risk of employment and housing insecurity. Participants were 195 single mothers and 357 married mothers living in an urban community in South Korea. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. Gausman J, Austin SB, Subramanian SV, Langer A. PLoS One. After a brief introduction of the survey purpose and an explanation concerning the correct means of completing the questionnaire, written consent was collected and the self-report questionnaire was distributed. No, Is the Subject Area "Mental health and psychiatry" applicable to this article? e0203004. Regarding employment and occupation, while 66.1% of the mothers in the control group were homemakers, a mere 13.3% of the single mothers were. BACKGROUND: There is growing support that cognitive-behavioral interventions may prevent the onset of clinical depression in at-risk individuals.OBJECTIVES: This article describes the long-term effects of a cognitive-behavioral group intervention in reducing depressive symptoms, negative thinking, and chronic stressors in low-income single mothers at risk for clinical depression. Roles However, a high level of stress (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.12–1.22, p < 0.001) and a serious alcohol-use problem (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.00–1.23, p = 0.048) were also depression risk factors among this group of mothers (Table 4). The AUDIT-K cut-off score indicating alcohol use disorder in Korean women was 12 points. Policy support such as economic assistance and child-rearing support services, in addition to other social supports, appear to be critical in preventing depression and promoting mental health among single mothers. The variables found to be depression risk factors in the univariate logistic regression were then used as covariates in the multivariate logistic regression to identify the depression risk factors that were independently significant. Clin Psychol Rev. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 20.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY), and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Based on the AUDIT-K cut-off point, 38.5% of the depressed single mothers had suspected alcohol use disorders compared with 28.6% of the depressed married mothers. Not surprisingly, single moms rarely get enough sleep. Furthermore, in the control group, the mean GARS score of the depressed mothers was also significantly higher than that of their non-depressed counterparts (36.3 vs. 18.2, p < 0.001). Epub 2007 Jan 3. Onset was also more likely to follow such an event when women had poor self-esteem and lack of support, both of which were more common among single mothers. This shows that single mothers typically have poorer mental and physical health relative to the general population or married mothers, and it has been suggested that the risk factors that contribute to their compromised physical and mental well-being include economic hardship and weak social support [4,14,15]. Education level and occupation are linked to economic status, which can influence depressive symptoms. Korean respondents with a total score of 12 or higher are highly likely to have alcohol use disorders. J Community Psychol. Moreover, another study that compared single mothers and single fathers reported that, while social discrimination and monthly income are the most significant factors influencing depressive symptoms among single mothers, self-esteem is the most important factor influencing depression among single fathers . PLOS ONE promises fair, rigorous peer review, While 72.3% of the depressed single mothers had an average monthly household income of less than two million KRW, approximately half (50.8%) of the non-depressed single mothers were in this income category, indicating a significantly higher rate of low income among the depressed single mothers relative to their non-depressed counterparts (p = 0.004). The fact that 90% of the single mothers in the present study had a minimum of a high school degree but held menial jobs suggests a limited range of occupational choices that is independent of educational attainment. phenomenon. On the other hand, a study by Wang et al. Single mothers were twice as likely as their married counterparts to be in financial hardship, despite being twice as likely to be in full-time … https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203004.t002. In the group of single mothers, the total CES-D score had a moderately positive correlation with the total GARS score (r = 0.506, p < 0.001), a mild positive correlation with the total AUDIT-K score (r = 0.251, p < 0.001), and a mild negative correlation with age (r = -0.311, p < 0.001). However, when a single mother is also coping with a mental illness, the challenges of parenting are increased. Research has also shown that mothers with dep… Considering the above, this study aimed to examine single mothers, who account for the largest share of single parents, to identify the sociodemographic and psychological variables influencing depression in this population group. Writing – review & editing, Affiliation For the control group, which comprised married mothers of two-parent families, a total of 1,000 community members were selected via stratified random sampling as part of the same city’s “2009 Mental Healthcare Project: Community survey”; they were then visited at their homes by the surveyors for 1:1 interviews. Monthly rental housing is a system of paying monthly rent to the landlord. Meanwhile, 67.2% of the single mothers had graduated from high school, and 26.2% from college. However, the researchers found that parents' depression had an even greater impact on children's mental health. 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